If you have a wonderful tree that gives a lot of delicious fruits, then you should protect it from dangers, but How can that be? or how does the immune system works in the body?

Protect your body

You must stay inside this hippocampal shield, otherwise, your body will be open to attack by bacteria, viruses, and parasites, so protect your body, strengthen your immunity so that you do not fall into the terrifying river of diseases and cancer.

Shield components

  • This shield contains an army of cells and tissues that protect the body, so when an enemy from diseases or viruses infiltrates your body, the immune cells make a large and complex attack on the disease.
  • To ensure the immune system works this army has a special unit of cells, proteins, and tissues that distinguish and eliminate dead and defective cells.
  • We’ll introduce some of the important and main units of the immune system to shield your body tree and saving your lives.

The white blood cell

leukocytes the are the first legion of the army are natural killer cells it is called leukocytes that found in your body in the blood vessels and lymph vessels that parallel to the veins and arteries.
When white blood cells find an enemy that may infiltrate the body, they multiply and sending signals to other types of cells to do the same.

leukocytes and lymphocytes

Where do leukocytes are fortified in the body?

The lymphoid organs are the stationing camps of the first leg of your army and its main part of the immune system works which includes:

Thymus
The spleen
Bone Marrow
Lymph nodes

 Types of blood cells leukocytes

  • Phagocytes

When the body contracts with a disease, then phagocytes absorb the pathogen through its types:
Neutrophils – to attack bacteria.
Monocytes
Macrophages – to remove dead and dying cells.
Mast cells for wound healing and defense against pathogens

  • Lymphocytes

Its mission is to identify the previous infection and sort it to start attacking it, as the lymphocytes begin their life in the bone marrow and then go into the body to do their part, and there are two types of them:

B lymphocytes ( B cell) – to stimulate T lymphocytes.

T lymphocytes to eliminate compromised cells and stimulate other leukocytes.

Which is an immune response?

Your immune army able to distinguish proteins on the surface of all cells by ignoring friendly proteins

Antigen

Its any substance that can trigger an immune response.

When infection or disease infiltrates the body, the defense army or the immune system locates it and begins to eliminate it.

An antigen has many forms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, toxins, or a foreign body, and it can also be an organ of the body. friendly cells, but they are dead or deformed.

Operations unit (cytokines)

Cytokines help immune cells work together in a wonderful system inside your body to provide the correct and the maximum immune response to any given invader, infection, or tumor. This is called the natural killer of enemies and diseases.

Lymphocyte B squad

Antibodies are special proteins that contain specific antigens for the virus or bacteria that cause this pain in your body or disease so they reconnaissance unit in your body detects the enemy or antigens such as the common cold virus or the bacteria that cause pneumonia. then Lymphocyte B generates the antibodies.

Cancer and lymphocyte

Antibodies can bind to cancer cells, disrupting them, as well as stimulating immune responses against them.

Immunoglobulins

The largest family of these antibodies is called immunoglobulins which has a very effective role in the immune response.

T lymphocytes squad

The special unit in your immune army, there are two types inside your body:

T Helper Cell (Th cells)

This is the communication unit of the immune army in your body.

T helper cells coordinate the immune response and communicating with some of the other cells.

Thus stimulating the B cells to produce more antibodies. that attracts more T cells or cell-eating phagocytes.

Combatant T cells ( cd4 t cells)  (cytotoxic T lymphocytes)

Fighting T cells specifically fight viruses. by recognizing small parts of the virus on the outside of infected cells, and then they attack and destroy infected cells.

Why do children get sick more than adults?

Until your body reaches adulthood and post-adolescence, the body encounters many pathogens and thus immunity develops its capabilities. That is why it is necessary to take care of children’s immunity

To illustrate, some diseases like chickenpox only happen once, because of immunity stores the antigen that is waiting to be destroyed if the body becomes infected again.

Immunity

immune system parts

Immunity can be divided into three types

Innate immune system definition

The first line of defense against pathogens includes the skin and mucous membranes of the throat and gut or intestine.

But if the virus or bacteria are able to infiltrate and evade from the innate immune system, then the second line of defense begins to work, which is called adaptive or acquired immunity.

Define acquired immunity

The body develops an impressive database of antibodies and for many pathogens, where your body has formed an immune memory, and this is why we resort to vaccinations by introducing the pathogen into the body in a way that the individual does not get sick and keeps copies of the antibodies. for more about acquired immunity

Acquired passive immunity

When your baby receives antibodies from his mother via the placenta before birth, or he gets antibodies from breast milk, this protects the child from infections.

We called passive immunity when the body gets immunity from another source, but it does not last long.

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